Monday, May 25, 2020
In an experiment, data from an experimental group is compared with data from a control group. These two groups should be identical in every respect except one: The difference between a control group and an experimental group is that the independent variable is changed for the experimental group, but is held constant in the control group. Key Takeaways: Control vs. Experimental Group The control group and experimental group are compared against each other in an experiment. The only difference between the two groups is that the independent variable is changed in the experimental group. The independent variable is controlled or held constant in the control group.A single experiment may include multiple experimental groups, which may all be compared against the control group.The purpose of having a control is to rule out other factors which may influence the results of an experiment. Not all experiments include a control group, but those that do are called controlled experiments.A placebo may also be used in an experiment. A placebo isnt a substitute for a control group because subjects exposed to a placebo may experience effects from the belief they are being tested. What Are Groups in Experiment Design? An experimental group is the group that receives an experimental procedure or a test sample. This group is exposed to changes in the independent variable being tested. The values of the independent variable and the result on the dependent variable are recorded. An experiment may include multiple experimental groups at one time. A control group is a group separated from the rest of the experiment such that the independent variable being tested cannot influence the results. This isolates the independent variables effects on the experiment and can help rule out alternative explanations of the experimental results. While all experiments have an experimental group, not all experiments require a control group. Controls are extremely useful where the experimental conditions are complex and difficult to isolate. Experiments that use control groups are called controlled experiments. A Simple Example of a Controlled Experiment A simple example of a controlled experiment may be used to determine whether or not plants need to be watered to live. The control group would be plants that are not watered. The experimental group would consist of plants that receive water. A clever scientist would wonder whether too much watering might kill the plants and would set up several experimental groups, each receiving a different amount of water. Sometimes setting up a controlled experiment can be confusing. For example, a scientist may wonder whether or not a species of bacteria needs oxygen in order to live. To test this, cultures of bacteria may be left in the air, while other cultures are placed in a sealed container of nitrogen (the most common component of air) or deoxygenated air (which likely contained extra carbon dioxide). Which container is the control? Which is the experimental group? Control Groups and Placebos The most common type of control group is one held at ordinary conditions so it doesnt experience a changing variable. For example, If you want to explore the effect of salt on plant growth, the control group would be a set of plants not exposed to salt, while the experimental group would receive the salt treatment. If you want to test whether the duration of light exposure affects fish reproduction, the control group would be exposed to a normal number of hours of light, while the duration would change for the experimental group. Experiments involving human subjects can be much more complex. If youre testing whether a drug is effective or not, for example, members of a control group may expect they will not unaffected. To prevent skewing the results, a placebo may be used. A placebo is a substance that doesnt contain an active therapeutic agent. If a control group takes a placebo, participants dont know whether they are being treated or not, so they have the same expectations as members of the experimental group. However, there is also the placebo effect to consider. Here, the recipient of the placebo experiences an effect or improvement because she believes there should be an effect. Another concern with a placebo is that its not always easy to formulate one that truly free of active ingredients. For example, if a sugar pill is given as a placebo, theres a chance the sugar will affect the outcome of the experiment. Positive and Negative Controls Positive and negative controls are two other types of control groups: Positive control groups are control groups in which the conditions guarantee a positive result. Positive control groups are effective to show the experiment is functioning as planned.Negative control groups are control groups in which conditions produce a negative outcome. Negative control groups help identify outside influences which may be present that were not unaccounted for, such as contaminants. Sources Bailey, R. A. (2008). Design of Comparative Experiments. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-68357-9.Chaplin, S. (2006). The placebo response: an important part of treatment. Prescriber: 16Ã¢â¬â22. doi:10.1002/psb.344Hinkelmann, Klaus; Kempthorne, Oscar (2008). Design and Analysis of Experiments, Volume I: Introduction to Experimental Design (2nd ed.). Wiley. ISBN 978-0-471-72756-9.
Thursday, May 14, 2020
The tumultuous reign of Nicholas II, the last czar of Russia, was tarnished by his ineptitude in both foreign and domestic affairs that helped to bring about the Russian Revolution. The Romanov Dynasty, which had ruled Russia for three centuries, came to an abrupt and bloody end in July 1918, when Nicholas and his family, who had been held under house arrest for more than a year, were brutally executed by Bolshevik soldiers. Who Was Nicholas II? Young Nicholas, known as the tsesarevich, or heir apparent to the throne, was born on May 18, 1868, the first child of Czar Alexander III and Empress Marie Feodorovna. He and his siblings grew up in Tsarskoye Selo, one of the residences of the imperial family located outside of St. Petersburg. Nicholas was schooled not only in academics, but also in gentlemanly pursuits such as shooting, horsemanship, and even dancing. Unfortunately, his father, Czar Alexander III, did not devote a great deal of time to preparing his son to one day become the leader of the massive Russian Empire. As a young man, Nicholas enjoyed several years of relative ease, during which he embarked upon world tours and attended countless parties and balls. After seeking a suitable wife, he became engaged to Princess Alix of Germany in the summer of 1894. But the carefree lifestyle that Nicholas had enjoyed came to an abrupt end on November 1, 1894, when Czar Alexander III died of nephritis (a kidney disease). Virtually overnight, Nicholas IIÃ¢â¬âinexperienced and ill-equipped for the taskÃ¢â¬âbecame the new czar of Russia. The period of mourning was briefly suspended on November 26, 1894, when Nicholas and Alix were married in a private ceremony. The following year, daughter Olga was born, followed by three more daughtersÃ¢â¬âTatiana, Maria, and AnastasiaÃ¢â¬âover a period of five years. (The long-awaited male heir, Alexei, would be born in 1904.) Delayed during the long period of formal mourning, Czar Nicholas coronation was held in May 1896. But the joyous celebration was marred by a horrible incident when 1,400 revelers were killed during a stampede at Khodynka Field in Moscow. The new czar, however, refused to cancel any of the ensuing celebrations, giving the impression to his people that he was indifferent to the loss of so many lives. Growing Resentment of the Czar In a series of further missteps, Nicholas proved himself unskilled in both foreign and domestic affairs. In a 1903 dispute with the Japanese over territory in Manchuria, Nicholas resisted any opportunity for diplomacy. Frustrated by Nicholas refusal to negotiate, the Japanese took action in February 1904, bombing Russian ships in the harbor at Port Arthur in southern Manchuria. The Russo-Japanese War continued for another year and a half and ended with the czars forced surrender in September 1905. Given a large number of Russian casualties and the humiliating defeat, the war failed to draw the support of the Russian people. Russians were dissatisfied about more than just the Russo-Japanese War. Inadequate housing, poor wages, and widespread hunger among the working class created hostility toward the government. In protest of their abysmal living conditions, tens of thousands of protestors marched peacefully upon the Winter Palace in St. Petersburg on January 22, 1905. Without any provocation from the crowd, the czars soldiers opened fire on the protestors, killing and wounding hundreds. The event came to be known as Bloody Sunday, and further stirred up anti-czarist sentiment among the Russian people. Although the czar was not at the palace at the time of the incident, his people held him responsible. The massacre enraged the Russian people, leading to strikes and protests throughout the country, and culminating in the 1905 Russian Revolution. No longer able to ignore his peoples discontent, Nicholas II was forced to act. On October 30, 1905, he signed the October Manifesto, which created a constitutional monarchy as well as an elected legislature, known as the Duma. Yet the czar maintained control by limiting the powers of the Duma and maintaining veto power. Birth of Alexei During that time of great turmoil, the royal couple welcomed the birth of a male heir, Alexei Nikolaevich, on August 12, 1904. Apparently healthy at birth, young Alexei was soon found to be suffering from hemophilia, an inherited condition that causes severe, sometimes fatal hemorrhaging. The royal couple chose to keep their sons diagnosis a secret, fearing it would create uncertainty about the future of the monarchy. Distraught about her sons illness, Empress Alexandra doted upon him and isolated herself and her son from the public. She desperately searched for a cure or any kind of treatment that would keep her son out of danger. In 1905, Alexandra found an unlikely source of helpÃ¢â¬âthe crude, unkempt, self-proclaimed healer, Grigori Rasputin. Rasputin became a trusted confidante of the empress because he could do what no one else had been capable ofÃ¢â¬âhe kept young Alexei calm during his bleeding episodes, thereby reducing their severity. Unaware of Alexeis medical condition, the Russian people were suspicious of the relationship between the empress and Rasputin. Beyond his role of providing comfort to Alexei, Rasputin had also become an adviser to Alexandra and even influenced her opinions on affairs of state. WWI and the Murder of Rasputin Following the assassination of Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand in June 1914, Russia became embroiled in the First World War, as Austria declared war on Serbia. Stepping in to support Serbia, a fellow Slavic nation, Nicholas mobilized the Russian army in August 1914. The Germans soon joined the conflict, in support of Austria-Hungary. Although he had initially received the support of the Russian people in waging a war, Nicholas found that support dwindling as the war dragged on. The poorly-managed and ill-equipped Russian ArmyÃ¢â¬âled by Nicholas himselfÃ¢â¬âsuffered considerable casualties. Nearly two million were killed over the duration of the war. Adding to the discontent, Nicholas had left his wife in charge of affairs while he was away at war. Yet because Alexandra was German-born, many Russians distrusted her; they also remained suspicious about her alliance with Rasputin. General loathing and mistrust of Rasputin culminated in a plot by several members of the aristocracy to murder him. They did so, with great difficulty, in December 1916. Rasputin was poisoned, shot, then bound and thrown into the river. Russian Revolution and the Czars Abdication All across Russia, the situation grew increasingly desperate for the working class, which struggled with low wages and rising inflation. As they had done before, the people took to the streets in protest of the governments failure to provide for its citizens. On February 23, 1917, a group of nearly 90,000 women marched through the streets of Petrograd (formerly St. Petersburg) to protest their plight. These women, many of whose husbands had left to fight in the war, struggled to make enough money to feed their families. The following day, several thousand more protesters joined them. People walked away from their jobs, bringing the city to a standstill. The czars army did little to stop them; in fact, some soldiers even joined the protest. Other soldiers, loyal to the czar, did fire into the crowd, but they were clearly outnumbered. The protestors soon gained control of the city during the February/March 1917 Russian Revolution. With the capital city in the hands of revolutionaries, Nicholas finally had to concede that his reign was over. He signed his abdication statement on March 15, 1917, bringing an end to the 304-year-old Romanov Dynasty. The royal family was allowed to stay on at the Tsarskoye Selo palace while officials decided their fate. They learned to subsist on soldiers rations and to make do with fewer servants. The four girls had all recently had their heads shaved during a bout of measles; oddly, their baldness gave them the appearance of prisoners. Royal Family Exiled to Siberia For a brief time, the Romanovs had hoped they would be granted asylum in England, where the czars cousin, King George V, was reigning monarch. But the planÃ¢â¬âunpopular with British politicians who deemed Nicholas a tyrantÃ¢â¬âwas quickly abandoned. By the summer of 1917, the situation in St. Petersburg had become increasingly unstable, with Bolsheviks threatening to overrun the provisional government. The czar and his family were quietly moved to western Siberia for their own protection, first to Tobolsk, then finally to Ekaterinburg. The home where they spent their final days was a far cry from the extravagant palaces they had been accustomed to, but they were grateful to be together. In October 1917, the Bolsheviks, under the leadership of Vladimir Lenin, finally gained control of the government following the second Russian Revolution. Thus the royal family also came under the control of the Bolsheviks, with fifty men assigned to guard the house and its occupants. The Romanovs adapted as best they could to their new living quarters, as they awaited what they prayed would be their liberation. Nicholas faithfully made entries in his diary, the empress worked on her embroidery, and the children read books and put on plays for their parents. The four girls learned from the family cook how to bake bread. During June 1918, their captors repeatedly told the royal family that they would soon be moved to Moscow and should be prepared to leave at any time. Each time, however, the trip was delayed and rescheduled for a few days later. Brutal Murders of the Romanovs While the royal family waited for a rescue that would never take place, civil war raged throughout Russia between the Communists and the White Army, which opposed Communism. As the White Army gained ground and headed for Ekaterinburg, the Bolsheviks decided they must act swiftly. The Romanovs must not be rescued. At 2:00 a.m. in the morning on July 17, 1918, Nicholas, his wife, and their five children, along with four servants, were awakened and told to prepare for departure. The group, led by Nicholas, who carried his son, was escorted to a small room downstairs. Eleven men (later reported to have been drunk) came into the room and began firing shots. The czar and his wife were first to die. None of the children died outright, probably because all wore hidden jewels sewn inside their clothing, which deflected the bullets. The soldiers finished the job with bayonets and more gunfire. The grisly massacre had taken 20 minutes. At the time of death, the czar was 50 years old and the empress 46. Daughter Olga was 22 years old, Tatiana was 21, Maria was 19, Anastasia was 17, and Alexei was 13 years old. The bodies were removed, and taken to the site of an old mine, where the executioners did their best to hide the identities of the corpses. They chopped them up with axes, and doused them with acid and gasoline, setting them afire. The remains were buried at two separate sites. An investigation soon after the murders failed to turn up the bodies of the Romanovs and their servants. (For many years afterward, it was rumored that Anastasia, the czars youngest daughter, had survived the execution and was living somewhere in Europe. Several women over the years claimed to be Anastasia, most notably Anna Anderson, a German woman with a history of mental illness. Anderson died in 1984; DNA testing later proved she was not related to the Romanovs.) Final Resting Place of the Romanovs Another 73 years would pass before the bodies were found. In 1991, the remains of nine people were excavated at Ekaterinburg. DNA testing confirmed they were the bodies of the czar and his wife, three of their daughters, and four servants. A second grave, containing the remains of Alexei and one of his sisters (either Maria or Anastasia), was discovered in 2007. Sentiment toward the royal familyÃ¢â¬âonce demonized in Communist societyÃ¢â¬âhad changed in post-Soviet Russia. The Romanovs, canonized as saints by the Russian Orthodox church, were remembered at a religious ceremony on July 17, 1998 (eighty years to the date of their murders), and reburied in the imperial family vault at the Peter and Paul Cathedral in St. Petersburg. Nearly 50 descendants of the Romanov dynasty attended the service, as did Russian President Boris Yeltsin.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
The Effects of Feedback on Learning Choo Jun Jie 13107898 James Cook University Singapore PY1102 Ã¢â¬â Exploring Psychology 2 Dr Aoife McLoughlin Bachelor of Psychology 13 April 2015 Introduction Feedback is an important construct found within many theories of learning and in instruction, where information is provided to learners after each trials or group of trials, in response to their movement patterns and facilitates their learning process (Schmidt Lee, 2011). A learning activity accompanied by feedback can maintain or adapt cognitive operations according to how new information about performance matches the learner s expectations about performance (Bangert-Drowns, Kulik, Kulik, Morgan, 1991). The person on the receiving end of a feedback session is able to gain knowledge of the quality and the results of their performance through the person giving the feedback (Salmoni, Schmidt Walter, 1984; Schmidt Wrisberg, 2004). Research has shown that the type of feedback provided has influences in the process of learning, which are no feedback, partial feedback and full feedback respectively (Grant, McAvoy Keenan, 1982). Research about the presence of no feedback in experimenta l settings has shown that the lack of information allows assumptions to be made during the process of learning, which tends to lead to higher risk of error (Levine, Leitenberg Richter, 1964; Rimm, Roesch, Perry, Peebles, 1971). In a study conducted by Hanna (1976) which exploresShow MoreRelatedTheories That Stand Out : Adult Learning Theory, And Feedback And Its Effects On Teaching Practices Essay3095 Words Ã |Ã 13 Pagesin this process by providing descriptive feedback to teachers. Descriptive feedback is considered one of the top ten strategies for improving learning (Hattie, 2009). Providing feedback is considered one of the highest yielding strategies in schools (Hattie, 2009). There are many theoretical foundations that have correlations with descriptive feedback. When examining literature, there are three main theories that stand out: Adult Learning Theory, Feedback Intervention Theory, and TransformationalRead MoreEvaluation Of A Research On Formative Feedback888 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesformative feedback. Review of Educational Research, 78(1), 153-189. Shute conducts an extensive literature review of the research on formative feedback because despite extensive investigation, the author proposes, is still misunderstood due to conflicting findings and inconsistent pattern results. The focus of this review is that feedback must be Ã¢â¬Å"delivered correctlyÃ¢â¬ to be effective. Therefore, Shute offers a twofold proposal: to understand the features, functions, and interactions of feedback in relationRead MoreFeedback Given During Motor Learning1683 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesFeedback given during motor learning provides the information we need to produce and correct our movements to allow correct execution of a skill. Without feedback we would not be able to correctly perform movements as simple as walking or as difficult as hitting a baseball. Feedback allows us to see the outcome of our movement and how we need to adjust our motions to perform the movement correctly. The feedback we as humans rely heavily on is visual feedback; the acc ess to visual feedback helps usRead MoreFeedback Loop And Organizational Learning1577 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesFeedback Loop and Organizational Learning The Excellent Consulting Group Organizational learning is no doubt an important concern to organizational researchers and practitioners. However, few theories or models of organizational learning have been widespread accepted, or at least the basic concept of what the concept of organizational learning is about (Garvin, 1993). Each learning cycle and process is to be treated as reorganizing feedback mechanism to achieve the taskÃ¢â¬â¢s objectives. Ã¢â¬Å"The technicalRead MoreOrganizational Learning Through The Improvement Of Individual Learning1244 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesOrganizational learning has become a major concern to researchers and practitioners in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s business world. More researchers are focusing on how to facilitate organizational learning through the improvement of individual learning. Even though individual learning is improved and the learning outcomes are sustained in an organization, it is not necessary for the organization to function better. Organizations are now focusing on feedback loops to learn more of their organizations. Through feedback loops,Read MoreCorrective Feedback And Second Language Acquisition Essay1563 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThere has been an increasing interest in researching the concept of corrective feedback in second language acquisition during recent decad es. According to Krashen (1982), corrective feedback does not play any crucial role in the field of first language acquisition, but this concept has a great effect on the acquisition of second language. Children acquire their mother tongue through social interaction easily and successfully. They actually acquire their first language through receiving implicitRead MoreJacob Breaks the Bar Essay1260 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesinitial consultation, I noticed that his initial movement, breaking the weight from the floor, was inadequate to improve his performance goal. Jacob admitted his novice status in the use of free weights for mass building, and submitted to begin learning as if he were unaware of any knowledge of the movement. Gross motor skills showing need for improvement were scapular retraction and load preparation in the lower body in order to break the bar from the surface. Based on Gentiles 2D ClassificationRead MoreThe Role Of Consciousness And Second Language Learning Essay 1624 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesNoticing The role of consciousness in learning has been a heavily debated topic. Many researchers have been hesitant to even use the term Ã¢â¬Å"consciousnessÃ¢â¬ when discussing the topic due to its vague nature and its difficulty to operationalize. Schmidt (1992) was one of the first researchers to explore in depth the true relationship of consciousness to second language learning. He operationalized the construct of consciousness under the umbrella term awareness. Awareness encapsulated attention and noticingRead MoreThe Importance Of Speaking Skill As A Tool For Learning Language Essay1606 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesSince there has been a great emphasis on the notion of CLT (Communicative Language Teaching) as a tool for learning language through interaction in the target language (Nunan, 1991), speaking skill have gained more importance by teachers, learners and researchers during recent decades. Therefore, for being able to communicate in the target language and to be proficient in oral p roduction activities, all various factors of this skill should be investigated. One of the main aspects of speaking skillRead MoreExplicit Feedback And Their Affective Assessment1219 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesExplicit feedback condition. Participants in the Ã¢â¬Å"explicit feedbackÃ¢â¬ condition followed almost the same procedure as those in the Ã¢â¬Å"implicit feedbackÃ¢â¬ condition. However, after reporting their affective response to the outcome of their self-selected investment decision, participants were presented with feedback comparing their affective forecast to their actual affective response. Unlike the implicit condition, this feedback explicitly informed participants of their affective forecasting ability.
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Write an essay on "Change Management Strategies". Answer: Introduction The essay discusses the change management strategies that can be employed in an organization setting to introduce innovation (Awad et al. 2013). In this paper, a plan has been discussed for introducing Telehealth services in a health care organization i.e. the Mental Health Division of St. Vincents Hospital. The adoption of change management strategies and innovation are interrelated phenomenon (Cho et al. 2012). If the organization introduces innovative processes or services within the organization, the existing organizational structure would be affected and require change. Innovative ideas can be implemented within the organizations by introducing change (Cameron and Green 2015). Change management concept Change management can be defined as a process of bringing required changes in the way employees within an organization undertakes various roles and responsibilities (Mitchell 2013). The desired changes within the organization can be brought by introduction of new policies, procedures, and methods that people follows to perform a task or responsibility (Hayes 2014). Hence, change management can be understood as a procedure or a guiding principle that enables the people in the organization to prepare and equip themselves for the change process.The process change management is initiated after observing the type of changes that are required. There are different types of changes in the organization such as operational change, strategic change, cultural change and political change (Benn et al. 2014). Further, change management can be divided in two types; employee change management and organizational change management. Change management consists of three important stages understanding the nature of change, planning the change management process, and implementing and communicating the change. First, the organization needs to understand what changes it wants to achieve, for instance, the implementation if Telehealth services at Mental Health Division of St. Vincents Hospital are an innovation that the organization wants to implement. Once the nature of change is understood, the hospital administration is required to plan various strategies to implement the desired change and communicating the requirement, benefits of change and expectations from the employees in making the change a success (Oreg et al.2013). Change management and diffusion of innovation Diffusion of innovation on the other hand aims at explaining how, why and at what rate new technology or ideas can be implemented in an organization (Cho et al. 2012). Diffusion is the process by which an innovation is spread and communicated within the organization (Cummings and Worley 2014). In this study, the organization has implemented Telehealth services as an innovative solution for patients. In order to, successfully implement the innovative solution, the organization needs to communicate the desired changes to the staffs and other stakeholders and device strategies to implement the change in defined period(Awadet al.2013). Further, to implement the change (innovation), social systems plays crucial role (Hayes 2014). Social systems include external influences such as mass media, government mandates; and internal influences such as change agents and/or opinion leaders (Hornstein 2015). In order to implement Telehealth services in the Mental Health Division of St. Vincents Hospital, internal influences will have greater influence to make the desired change in the organization (Benn et al.2014). Opinion leaders are well known individuals in the organization that have the ability to influences the opinions of others on the subject matter for which opinion leaders are known. Similarly, change agents are individuals who are experts typically experts in their domain and can bring desired changes in the organization by providing counseling, training, and assisting other individuals in the organization to achieve desired level of change to implement the innovation (Cho et al. 2012). Outline of the change management process In order to implement change the organization has to develop strategies to introduce change in a systematic manner so that there are no resistances and the desired results achieved (Benn et al. 2014). There are different approaches to change management but the overall objective of change management process is to communicate and prepare employees for implementing desired change so that there is little resistance from the employees and the new process or system (innovation) are effectively incorporated into the organization (Becker et al. 2013). Proposed change management structure of Lippitts seven step change theory: Lippitts seven-step change management theory is focused on the role of a change agent (Cummings and Worley 2014). The organization has implemented the right change after observing the key requirements of change. There are seven different phases in Lippitts seven phase structure. Phase 1: The managers have to identify the issues of the existing management structure and develop the requirement of the change management structure. The organization has identified Telehealth, which is to be implemented (Emani et al.2012). Phase 2: The managers establish the change relationship in the management structure. The managers motivate the employees and identify the capacity of the organization for change (Mitchell 2013). Phase 3: The managers evaluate have evaluated the resources of the health care organization. The administrative has motivated the managers for the change agent (Tedeschi 2013). Phase 4: after that, the managers define the progressive stage of change for the management structure (White 2016). Phase 5: The managers ensure the role and responsibility of the change agents (White 2016). Phase 6: The managers maintain the change in the management structure through communication, feedback and group coordination (White 2016). Phase 7: The managers gradually remove the change agent from the relationship. The changed part thus becomes the part of the management structure (Cummings and Worley 2014). Change management structure through the ADKAR model The ADKAR model is based on the five key strategies to implement change within an organization (Awadet al. 2013). This model can be used by the organization to ensure Telehealth services are effectively implement and incorporated. This model presents five stages that can be used by the organization to implement Telehealth services in the organization (Mitchell 2013) Awareness: employees (or people) who are affected by the change must be made aware about the reason of change (Hornstein 2015). In order to create awareness about the implementation of Telehealth services, the management can conduct brainstorming session, focus group interviews and personal interviews to educate the employees and solicit desired responses from them. Desire: desire refers to engaging employees in the change process to minimize any possible resistances (Hornstein 2015). It is human tendency to resist change, similarly in the St. Vincent Hospital, not all the employees would welcome change. Therefore, it is important for the management to develop strategies to induce desire for change among the employees; this can be achieved by implementing motivational programs to boost employee desire to participate in the change process. Knowledge: knowledge refers to imparting required level of skills and knowledge about the change through coaching or training (Hornstein 2015). Sometimes, employees resist change because they think that they do not possess the desired skills that would be required after implementing an innovative idea or change in the organization. However, the management can easily eliminate such resistances by providing special training to employees to develop skills that would be required for implementing change process. Ability: is implementing the change and developing required skills to ensure its success (Hornstein 2015). Other then training, management can prepare its own capabilities by being innovative and developing a learning organization to keep resources updated and thereby, staying ahead of competitors. Reinforcement: It refers to ensuring the desired change is maintained, it includes evaluation of effectiveness of change and taking correcting actions if required (Hornstein 2015). Once the new process is successfully implemented into the organization, the management is required to take evaluative measures to identify the extent of change is accepted by the employees. Further, the management is also required to devise strategies to prevent the situation of slipping back to the earlier condition Kotters 8 step change model Another model of change that can be used by the organization to implement proposed change (Telehealth services) in the organization is Kotters 8-step model discussed below Step 1: Create Urgency By creating urgency, the organization can influence and motivate its employees to understand the importance of desired change and solicit positive responses from them to initiate change process (Kotter 2012). Step 2: Form a powerful coalition It is convincing people that change is necessary. This stage requires organizational leaders, opinion leaders or change agents to communicate and convince employees that change is important and leading them through the change process so as to avoid resistances (Kotter 2012). Step 3: Create a vision for change this step requires developing values central to change and developing strategies to execute the change (Kotter 2012). Stage 4: Communicate the vision once the change vision and strategies are formulated, it is important to communicate that vision to the employees so that they can understand the management point of view (Kotter 2012). Stage 5: Remove Obstacles This stage includes identifying possible areas of resistance, employing the services of change leaders, and developing strategies to overcome such obstacles (Kotter 2012). Stage 6: Short-term wins change is a long term and continuous process; therefore, it is important to create short-term targets and rewarding employees once these short-term targets are achieved. This motivates employees and assists in achieving desired change (Appelbaumet al.2012). Stage 7: Build on the change Once the desired levels of change are achieved, it is important to take actions to build upon on that change. Change is a continuous process and requires constant up-gradation (Kotter 2012). Stage 8: Anchor the change in corporate culture Finally, to make the change stick, it should become part of organization core culture, therefore, it is important to make sure that organizational leaders are continue to support change (Hickman and Ojo 2014). Conclusion From the above discussion, it can be concluded that change management is a long term and continuous process. In order to implement Telehealth services into the Mental Health Department of St. Vincent Hospital, the management has to understand change management models and role of change agents and opinion leaders. The administrators of the health and social care organization have implemented the change management strategy. The management has followed Lippitts seven-phase structures and ADKAR model. In addition, Kotters eight step change model has also been discussed that can be utilized by the management to bring desired change into the organization. The change management structure will help the healthcare organizations to redevelop the workforce structure and improve the service of the organization. Reference list: Appelbaum, S.H., Habashy, S., Malo, J.L. and Shafiq, H., 2012. Back to the future: revisiting Kotter's 1996 change model.Journal of Management Development,31(8), pp.764-782. Awad, R., Sherratt, S. and Jefferies, M., 2013.Proposing a new model for organizational change management.Change Management: An International Journal,12(3), pp.17-28. Benn, S., Dunphy, D. and Griffiths, A., 2014.Organizational change for corporate sustainability.Routledge. Cameron, E. and Green, M., 2015.Making sense of change management: a complete guide to the models, tools and techniques of organizational change.Kogan Page Publishers. Cho, Y., Hwang, J. and Lee, D., 2012. Identification of effective opinion leaders in the diffusion of technological innovation: A social network approach.Technological Forecasting and Social Change,79(1), pp.97-106. Cummings, T.G. and Worley, C.G., 2014.Organization development and change.Cengage learning. Emani, S., Yamin, C.K., Peters, E., Karson, A.S., Lipsitz, S.R., Wald, J.S., Williams, D.H. and Bates, D.W., 2012. Patient perceptions of a personal health record: a test of the diffusion of innovation model.Journal of medical Internet research,14(6), p.e150. Hayes, J., 2014.The theory and practice of change management. Palgrave Macmillan. Hickman, S. and Ojo, O., 2014. Implementing Early supported discharge, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, Community, Primary care, Multidisciplinary team, Change management, Kotter's 8-step Model.GSTF Journal of Nursing and Health Care (JNHC),1(1). Hornstein, H.A., 2015. The integration of project management and organizational change management is now a necessity.International Journal of Project Management,33(2), pp.291-298. Kotter, J., 2012. The 8-step process for leading change.Kotter International. Mitchell, G., 2013. Selecting the best theory to implement planned change: Improving the workplace requires staff to be involved and innovations to be maintained. Gary Mitchell discusses the theories that can help achieve this.Nursing Management,20(1), pp.32-37. Oreg, S., Michel, A. and By, R.T. eds., 2013.The psychology of organizational change: Viewing change from the employees perspective. Cambridge University Press White, K.M., 2016. Change theory and models: Framework for translation.Translation of Evidence into Nursing and Health Care..
Saturday, April 11, 2020
The Hobbit Book Review The Hobbit Book Review The main character of the book is Mr. Bilbo Baggins. He is the Hobbit who led the Dwarves to the Lonely Mountain to reclaim their treasure from the dragon named Smaug. Bilbo is middle aged and resides in a clean, warm burrow dug into the side of a hill. In the beginning of the story Bilbo is a very weak character. He is easily frightened, and very shy. One of his strengths though, is that he is of the mythical race called Hobbits. Hobbits are known for their skills in thievery and spying. There are two main characteristics of Hobbits that separate them from normal humans. One, Hobbits are very small. They only grow to reach the height of about three feet if they are lucky. Secondly, they have large feet that are covered at the tops by thick hair. This hair is used to keep the hobbit's feet warm because they do not wear boots. Another characteristic of hobbits is that they normally don't wish for any excitement or adventure. They thrive on repetition and dull activities such as gardening. Hobbits also love to eat. Bilbo's favorite foods are: cake, bacon, sausage, eggs, wine, bread and any other fattening things that can be thought of. Some other important characters are as follows. Gandalf, he is the wizard that accompanies Bilbo and the dwarves on their quest. Thorin Oakenshield is son of the king of the dwarves who were driven from the Lonely Mountain. Smaug is the dragon of the Lonely Mountain who hordes the treasure he stole. Gollum is a slimy creature that was born a Hobbit but had the ring too long; this is the character that Bilbo steals the ring from. Bard is the archer that kills Smaug. Bilbo is the main character of the story and also the narrator. The main conflict of the story line is Bilbo vs. Himself. Bilbo has to overcome his fears of dragons and other creatures in order to carry out his part of the mission. Another conflict is the whole party vs. Smaug. The party of dwarves along with Bilbo and Gandalf, have to be able to destroy the dragon in order to claim their so deserved treasure. Bilbo completes this task by finding the dragon's weak spot and relaying the location to an archer in Lake Town. Both of these conflicts are won by the end of the story. The book begins with Bilbo enjoying a pipe after breakfast. This is one of his favorite pleasures and he feels quite content in doing so. As Bilbo smokes his pipe, Gandalf stops by to have a chat with Bilbo. He informs Bilbo that he is looking for someone to go on an adventure with him. Although Bilbo is tempted to accept the offer, he declines. Before Gandalf leaves Bilbo decides to invite him for tea the next morning. The next morning instead of the wizard at the door, there is a group of dwarves... thirteen in all. Bilbo is astounded! They are all very rude; they enter Bilbo's burrow in groups of twos. The dwarfs outline a plan on how to regain the treasure that is rightfully their own but has been stolen by the evil dragon Smaug. Bilbo is astounded to notice that he is in the plans. The dwarves plan to use Bilbo to steal the treasure from Smaug. After a lot of arguing and convincing, Bilbo decides to join in the dwarves' quest. Gandalf gives the party a key and a map of their journey which ends at the Lonely Mountain. It is there that the treasures of Thorin's ancestors are kept-guarded by Smaug. The quest begins when the party meets at the Green Dragon Inn. From there they venture into the Lone-lands. As heavy rains begin to fall, Bilbo notices that Gandalf is missing. This is something that is later on considered to be normal because Gandalf comes and goes throughout the duration of the trip. All through the quest Bilbo ends up saving the party from many dangerous situations. This is something that at first Bilbo finds hard to believe because he has very low self-esteem. The party gets into many jams during the trip, but they always escape them through the help of Bilbo and some times Gandalf. Some of these jams are: getting caught by trolls, getting captured by goblins, being attacked by large wolves called Wargs, one of the dwarves falls into a coma from touching black water in the Mirkwood Forest, near starvation, being captured
Tuesday, March 10, 2020
Systems Implementation essays Big Wheel Auto Insurance Company provides auto insurance coverage for licensed drivers in the state of Indiana. The companys headquarter is located in the city of Speedway where it has two strategic business units located at the cities of Waterloo and Corydon. In all, BWAIC employs approximately 150 people with internal departments consisting of the Policy, Claims, Payroll, Personnel, and Insurance Agents. Currently, BWAIC insures 50,000 policyholders statewide. Last year, BWAICs net profit was $875,000. With certain state regulations, along with related socioeconomic impacts, the company expects an increase of new policies to underwrite. Accordingly, BWAIC is interested in positioning itself in the market where: 1) Internal exchange of information is efficient, 2) It improves its Customer Service, 3) Share information with external business contacts. To stimulate a vision within the company of leading the market in customer service through an efficient information system and to utilize the most current technologies at lowest possible cost. Internal: An improved information process where business applications provide intelligent solutions, secured data, and improved communication exchange between units and offices. External: To provide an advantage over the market where the interactions between the company and its external business environment produces customer satisfaction. Accordingly, this will have a positive impact on customer service where efficiency on the point of contact, through the lifetime of the policy, is evident. Currently, BWAICs network setup doesnt provide an efficient exchange of information between its key departments. Each department utilizes their own business transaction system within a mainframe environment. This input-output process performs the processing of their business transactions. The departments: Policy, Claims, Personnel, Payroll, Legal and Insurance...
Saturday, February 22, 2020
2008 Presidential Campaign - Essay Example This essay discusses the 2008 presidential campaign and presidential election, in which Obama contested with John Mc Cain. This was the election in which Obama got the highest vote and he won with the highest vote count. It happened on November 4th of 2008 and Obama was an attractive personality even when he was campaigning for the election. Barack Obama was on the part of Democrats while John Mc Cain was with Republicans. Obama voted from Illinois while John was from the senate of Arizona. The highlight of this election was that in this election Obama won the highest number of votes any president has earned in the whole history of America. Here Obama received 365 electoral votes while John received 173 electoral votes. The researcher aims to analyze the question why Obama was so much popular and highly voted during 2008 election. One of the unique features of the 2008 election was that Black got a chance to vote for someone without having racial consciousness. The unique quality of Obama was that he had the innate characteristic of reviving something or a country which was shattered in pieces. Obama before his 2008 campaign completely studied the economical situation of the country and understood the problems of common men. He was not only preaching but also practicing in a positive manner. It is then concluded by the researcher of the essay, that it was ObamaÃ¢â¬â¢s dedication, hard work, love and compassion to his country and country men which led to his presidency to be a success.